Debate on the decline thesis
Capitalism and slavery summary
Lesourd, Revue Historique, January—June However it should be noted that this still did not account for the over production of the colonies and the depreciating value of sugar on the global market two key issues which capitalists would have taken into consideration. Hausman, in Library Journal 1 May Coping with these enormous challenges and finding the appropriate responses through a sea of socio-economic and political changes is, in fact, the story of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Ottoman history. It is only logical to assume that the metropole would seek alternative means of acquiring wealth. Capitalism and Slavery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, In fact, the seventeenth century was a period of significant expansion in the Ottoman bureaucracy, not contraction or decline. Greene, S. Groups such as the Clapham Sect were fundamental in raising awareness of the harsh and inhumane treatment which the enslaved were subjected to. Thus, these works should not be taken as evidence of actual Ottoman decline. These new islands with their fresh soil helped to accelerate Britain's expanding sugar economy. Jamaica: Cambridge University Press, pg.
However much debate has ensued as to the defining factor which caused its eventual accomplishment. The early slaveholders had not only the best soils in the British West Indies but also the protection afforded by the Navigation Acts, which guaranteed high sugar prices and exclusive trading privileges with North American suppliers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg. Upon surveying "what was left of the old Empire," Parliament chose to follow a policy that protected the status quo of all economic arrangements, including that of West Indian black-white relations and the slave trade.
Curtin, R. Meanwhile, the British West Indies was in bad shape as sugar production was receiving stiff competition from plantations in Brazil and Cuba and there was also the dawn of beet sugar which supplied the European market an alternative to British West Indian cane sugar at cheaper prices.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. This period is frequently referred to as that of The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century and thus the difficulties faced by the Ottoman Empire have been reframed not as unique to them, but as part of a general trend impacting the entire European and Mediterranean region.
The slave system provided an ever-increasing amount of tropical staples, a protected market for British manufactures, and a source of British metropolitan capital. Such comparisons caused earlier researchers to see transformation and change as inherently negative, as the empire shifted away from the established norms of Suleiman's romanticized and idealized age. However, it is now recognized that rather than simply describing objective reality, they were often utilizing the genre of decline to voice their own personal complaints. The success of British free trade following the American Revolution, coupled with the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations Glasgow, , exposed the fact that the riches generated by the mercantilist system were actually a fiction on the empire's balance sheet. On the contrary, Ottoman Valide Sultans , princesses, and concubines were successfully able to fortify dynastic rule during periods of instability, and played an important role in dynastic legitimization. Economically, the empire was undermined by the discovery of the New World and the subsequent shift in the economic balance between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Europe, as well as the voyages of discovery which brought Europeans to India, and led to a decline in the volume of trade passing through Ottoman ports. Thus, far from being a symptom of decline, this was part of a process of military and fiscal modernization. Participants in this debate dispute whether the health of the West Indian sugar industry had any impact on the decision to abolish the slave trade in Liberties Lost. While earlier scholarship depicted the Portuguese as having established a near-monopoly on the movement of luxury goods, particularly spices, to Europe, in fact the Portuguese were only one of many actors competing in the Indian Ocean commercial arena. However much debate has ensued as to the defining factor which caused its eventual accomplishment. Emmer, Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Filologie en Geschiedenis, 67 3 Hair, P.
The changing nature and adaptability of Ottoman state and society; 2. However, by the turn of the century, the need for cash to raise armies of musket-wielding infantry led the central government to reform its system of land tenure, and to expand the practice of tax farmingwhich was also a common method of revenue-raising in contemporary Europe.
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