An analysis of the prohibition controversy on hoover administration
Temperance, its advocates promised, would energize political reform, promote community welfare, and improve public health.
Inafter many years in London, Hoover returned to the United States, won the friendship and admiration of President Woodrow Wilson, and was made the director of a new government agency called the United States Food Administration, which was charged with managing the national food supply now that the country was a participant in the war.
Then it elevates the standard of living and adds to the comforts of life.
Those fears were not unjustified, because during the late s two fifths of Americans surveyed still supported national Prohibition. Hoover also refused to call a special session of Congress after the election, leaving the 72nd Congress in recess from March to December He borrowed money to buy food before he had succeeded in getting government assistance. The atmosphere surrounding these activities was typically Hooverian: he confronted the Depression the way he had the humanitarian crises that brought him to the Presidency, with sheer hard work. He also made a critical mistake in signing into law the Smoot-Hawley Act, which raised taxes on imports and prompted foreign nations to turn their backs on American-made goods when the country desperately needed sales. Unless the subject is a monster, all that intimacy typically turns the biographer into a personal partisan. The Anti-Saloon League ASL , which won leadership of the movement after , was so focused on Prohibition that it did not even require of its members a pledge of personal abstinence. Hoover also established the Wickersham Commission to make public policy recommendations regarding Prohibition. He used this as an occasion to reprise his decades-past role as a one-man food-distribution tsar in postwar Europe. By early middle age, he was a celebrated international hero. I agree with other historians who have argued that this belief is false: Prohibition did work in lowering per capita consumption. Before he turned thirty, he was married and a father, running a large gold mine in Tientsin, China, and highly prosperous. Washington police attempted to disperse the demonstrators, but they were outnumbered and unsuccessful. Dry territory expanded through local option, especially in the South, but this did not mean that drinking came to a halt in towns or counties that adopted local prohibition; such laws aimed to stop manufacture or sale or both , not consumption. The inebriety asylums had closed, and the self-help societies had withered away.
WAS J. Nevertheless, once Prohibition became the law of the land, many citizens decided to obey it.
An analysis of the prohibition controversy on hoover administration
The Hoover Commission, run with typically obsessive thoroughness by its septuagenarian namesake, produced nineteen separate reports and two hundred and seventy-three recommendations. WAS J. After months of debate, Congress produced a bill that raised the average import duties on agricultural products from 38 percent to 49 percent and average import duties on industrial products from 31 percent to 34 percent. By early middle age, he was a celebrated international hero. In addition to the considerable alcoholic content of patent medicines, which women and men and children were unknowingly ingesting, women were apparently serving liquor in their recipes and with meals. Kennedy , President Lyndon B. Even now, if you were a politician running for office, you would invoke Hoover only to compare your opponent to him. This did not happen with Whyte and Hoover. One group of new drinkers—or newly public drinkers—whose emergence in that role was particularly surprising to contemporary observers was women. Surrounded by a circle of loyal aides who had served him for decades and who were known collectively as the Firm, he apportioned his long days at the office he was the first President to keep a telephone on his desk into series of eight-minute appointments. Instead, Hoover's first State of Union address after the election called for a balancing of the budget. Hoover launched infrastructure-building projects unprecedented in scale. Shots were fired by the police in a futile attempt to attain order, and two protesters were killed while many officers were injured. Roosevelt created the Works Projects Administration, Social Security, and other programs that conferred benefits directly on people in need.
Lawrence Seaway and the Hoover Dam. Their well-funded arguments, however, fell on deaf ears among the voters throughout the era, most tellingly in the presidential election of These conclusions were neither willful nor arbitrary, as they had been reached after three quarters of a century of experience.
The leading antiprohibitionist organization throughout the s was the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment AAPAwhich drew its support mainly from conservative businessmen, who objected to the increased power given to the federal government by National Prohibition.
Whatever qualities had made Hoover successful as an operator of mines in remote areas also made him successful at delivering relief under emergency conditions. Four years later, he got fifty-nine electoral votes and carried just six states.
The historical context of the Progressive Era provided 4 levers with which that support might be engineered, and prohibitionists manipulated them effectively. Hoover also refused to call a special session of Congress after the election, leaving the 72nd Congress in recess from March to December Nevertheless, once Prohibition became the law of the land, many citizens decided to obey it. Hoover believed that a small central government was the only possible distinctively American alternative to Socialism, Communism, and Fascism. A grassroots movement began working in earnest for prohibition's repeal, supported by numerous organizations, such as the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment. The liquor industry was virtually destroyed, and this created an historic opportunity to socialize rising generations in a lifestyle in which alcohol had no place. Distilled spirits made a dramatic comeback in American drinking patterns, reversing a three-quarters-of-a-century decline, although in volume spirits did not reach its pre-Prohibition level. He was working on another book when he died in New York City in , at age By , however, prohibitionist momentum on these fronts slowed, as the liquor industry began a political counteroffensive. Hoover was a logistical saint. Because the Volstead Act was drafted only after ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment was completed, neither the congressmen and state legislators who approved submission and ratification, nor the voters who elected them, knew what kind of prohibition they were voting for.
Doak began a campaign to prosecute illegal immigrants in the United States. The Hoover Commission, run with typically obsessive thoroughness by its septuagenarian namesake, produced nineteen separate reports and two hundred and seventy-three recommendations.
Distilled spirits made a dramatic comeback in American drinking patterns, reversing a three-quarters-of-a-century decline, although in volume spirits did not reach its pre-Prohibition level. Surrounded by a circle of loyal aides who had served him for decades and who were known collectively as the Firm, he apportioned his long days at the office he was the first President to keep a telephone on his desk into series of eight-minute appointments. Thus, the arguments for Repeal that seemed to have greatest resonance with voters in and centered not on indulgence but on economic recovery. Prohibitionism, which was inherently political, required even more urgent pressing of such claims for societal improvement. Nobody could figure out exactly what he thought. Furthermore, American voters continued to support Prohibition politically even in its stringent form, at least in national politics, until their economy crashed and forcefully turned their concerns in other directions. He had been raised in a strict teetotalling environment.
The times demanded industrial-scale achievements, not limited to industry itself; Hoover was a public-service superman, a mega-bureaucrat. However, economic depression had spread worldwide, and Canada, France and other nations retaliated by raising tariffs, resulting in a contraction of international trade and a worsening of the Depression.
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