An analysis of recalling a dream in the form of one or two theoretical perspectives
Taken together, these studies lead to the idea that dreaming may not always be a function of sleep, thereby providing another possible linkage between waking cognition and dreaming.
Neither reported very many dreams during REM awakenings, far below the average for all other children in their age group. Neuroimaging studies reveal that the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and basal forebrain are reactivated during REM Braun et al.
Twelve of the 16 in the older group completed the study; the other 4 moved out of town. It seems to be responsible for determining the degree of vividness and intensity experienced in dreaming, and may account for other formal features of dreaming, such as its realistic and self-participatory nature, its general lack of self-reflectiveness, and its occasional incongruities of form.
There are some disparities between the lesion and imaging results, and a few disagreements among the imaging studies, all of which utilize PET-scan technology, but the overall findings are strikingly consistent and provide the starting point for more detailed studies. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream.
What are dreams
Third, Solms found 47 patients with either unilateral or bilateral injuries in or near the region of the PTO junction who reported complete loss of dreaming. They also said that their dreams now seemed more realistic. Then, too, studies using stereotaxic electrodes to locate the sites causing seizures show that the "dreamy state" sometimes experienced as part of the diagnostic process is related to the temporal-limbic region. This neurocognitive model also contains a way to assess the weight to be given to the conceptions expressed in dreams: by determining the relative frequency of their occurrence. Even though the fear of failure overtakes our mind, we cannot allow the fear to detour us from living out our dream. Moreover, these conceptions of self and others can be contradictory as well as numerous. Figurative concepts are sometimes thought of as mere embellishments of speech that are not necessary for thinking, but many cognitive scientists now see them as an important part of people's conceptual system due to a wide range of experimental studies summarized by Gibbs , many of them carried out by him and his students. The rapid advances in neuroimaging and neurochemistry are the most obvious examples of this point. In addition, laboratory dream studies show that dreaming cannot be triggered by external stimuli, and that it is very difficult to influence dream content with either presleep stimuli, such as fear-arousing or exciting movies, or with concurrent stimuli administered during REM, such as a spray of water, sounds, or the names of significant people in the dreamers' lives Foulkes, ; a; Rechtschaffen, Compared to the dream reports of adults, those of the young children were notable for their low levels of aggressions, misfortunes, and negative emotions Domhoff, ; Foulkes, ; Findings on the presence or absence of visual imagery in people who lose their sight through disease or accident before or after ages also support Foulkes's argument. If it were higher with her husband than with other adult males, and if there were a lower rate of friendly interactions as well, then the metaphoric hypothesis would have been supported by means of a non-metaphoric content analysis.
In closing this discussion of dreaming and cognition, it is worth mentioning that a new neurocognitive model might turn out to be useful in understanding the development of consciousness. This is the starting point for the neurocognitive model proposed in this book.
First, of the patients with brain lesions reported no changes in dreaming. There are also differences as to whether the neural network for dreaming always includes the area in the pons that is necessary for REM Foulkes, ; Hobson et al.
Why do we dream
It also included 8 girls and 8 boys ages to account for the years between 9 and With limited dream reports, therapists and patients found it difficult to communicate with one another: developing strategies to proceed in their absence soon became critical to the practice of psychotherapy. There are several replicated results from these two studies that are important for a neurocognitive model of dreams. The dreams of children ages showed a sequence of events in which characters moved about and interacted, but the dream narratives were not very well developed. In addition to information on the frequency of dream recall and the content of the dream reports, a wide range of personality and cognitive tests was administered by other members of the project team. An emphasis on the highly personal nature of dreams may explain why the dreams of college students in the United States have not changed over the past 50 years; the culture has changed, but personal concerns probably remain very stable. Pragmatically, dream reports and interpretations acted as a central medium in which patients and therapists communicated, operating as a space in which languages could develop in order to discuss topics deemed intensely private, such as sex and the body. Second, Solms found changes in dreaming due to injuries in the medial occipito-temporal region of the visual association cortex in two patients. The Solms study provides seven specific findings relating dreaming and neurological structures. The likelihood that preschool children do not dream often or well may have implications for an unexpected finding in studies of how children come to understand imagination, pretense, and dreams. This finding leads to the hypothesis of a "continuity principle" operating in dreams that is compatible with Foulkes's ; ; findings in laboratory studies with both children and adults. I would like to think I have a very vivid imagination, based on some of the dreams that I encounter. The parallels with the metaphoric dimensions of waking thought may be why some societies have made use of dreams in their cultural practices and rituals. This spreadsheet is discussed as part of Chapter 3.
based on 27 review