A history of the seven years war

Seven years war significance

He pressed on to invade Bohemia, but the Austrians put up unexpectedly strong resistance and forced him to withdraw. He then fought a draw with the Russians at Zorndorf, but took heavy casualties a third of his army ; he was then beaten by Austria at Hochkirch, losing a third again. The war in North America settled into a stalemate for the next several years, while in Europe the French scored an important naval victory and captured the British possession of Minorca in the Mediterranean in The French aim was to use a small army, aided by the Canadians and Aboriginal allies, to tie down these large British forces in the interior, thereby sparing more valuable colonies from attack. Britain and Spain also went to war, and Britain shocked their new enemy by seizing the hub of their Caribbean operations, Havana, and a quarter of the Spanish Navy. The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10th, , settling issues between Britain, Spain and France, humiliating the latter, former greatest power in Europe. Thanks for watching! The diplomatic revolution and the prelude to the French and Indian War The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle , which concluded the War of the Austrian Succession, left wide grounds for discontent among the powers. General Edward Braddock The war did not begin well for the British. Washington ambushed a small French detachment, but was subsequently defeated by a larger French force. France found itself committed to fighting in Europe to defend Austria, which could do nothing to aid France overseas. Twelve years later, the American colonies rose in revolt against Britain. In the resulting Treaty of Paris , Great Britain secured significant territorial gains in North America, including all French territory east of the Mississippi river, as well as Spanish Florida, although the treaty returned Cuba to Spain. In , the French built fortifications in the area to strengthen their claim.

Unbeknownst to the other powers, King George II also made overtures to the Prussian king, Frederick, who, fearing the Austro-Russian intentions, was also desirous of a rapprochement with Britain.

Both Wolfe and Montcalm died from wounds sustained during the battle.

Who won the seven years war

Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in The Hanoverian king George II of Great Britain was passionately devoted to his family's continental holdings, but his commitments in Germany were counterbalanced by the demands of the British colonies overseas. In North America, imperial rivals Britain and France struggled for supremacy. Europe: Frederick Gets His Retaliation in First In May , Britain and France officially went to war, triggered by French attacks on Minorca; the recent treaties stopped other nations being sucked in to help. Britain's basic framework for the alliance itself was to protect Hanover's interests against France. On July 13, , Braddock died after being mortally wounded in an ambush on a failed expedition to capture Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh. It did nothing to allay the colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France, and it virtually guaranteed a subsequent conflict between Austria and Prussia by confirming the conquest of Silesia by Frederick the Great. Other possessions changed hands, and Hanover was secured for the British. Peace None of Prussia, Austria, Russia or France had been able to win the decisive victories needed to force their enemies to surrender, but by the war in Europe had drained the belligerents and they sought peace, Austria, facing bankruptcy and feeling unable to proceed without Russia, France defeated abroad and unwilling to fight on to support Austria, and England keen to cement global success and end the drain on their resources. Aleksey Petrovich, Graf count Bestuzhev-Ryumin , grand chancellor of Russia under the empress Elizabeth , was hostile to both France and Prussia, but he could not persuade Austrian statesman Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz to commit to offensive designs against Prussia so long as Prussia was able to rely on French support. Continue Reading.

Inthe French built fortifications in the area to strengthen their claim. Even though war had not yet been officially declared, the British began planning an assault against the French in America, ordering Major-General Edward Braddock and two regular regiments to America in However, inBritish Prime Minister William Pitt the older recognized the potential of imperial expansion that would come out of victory against the French and borrowed heavily to fund an expanded war effort.

seven years war results

Neither group, however, found much reason to be satisfied with its partnership: British subsidies to Austria produced nothing of much help to the British, while the British military effort had not saved Silesia for Austria.

Britain began to harass the French coast to try and draw troops away, while Prussia pushed the Swedes out.

A history of the seven years war

France, which was heavily committed to fighting on the European continent, had few resources to spare for its colonies. She started weighing up her alliances and seeking out alternatives. Robert Wilde is a historian with a focus on early medieval Europe who has 15 years of freelance writing experience. Prussia , the leading anti-Austrian state in Germany, had been supported by France. Washington ambushed a small French detachment, but was subsequently defeated by a larger French force. In addition, Choiseul was convinced that the American colonies, which no longer needed British military protection, would soon strike out for independence. He took the capital, accepting their surrender, incorporating their troops and sucking huge funds out of the state. These disputes ultimately spurred colonial rebellion, which eventually developed into a full-scale war for independence.

He took the capital, accepting their surrender, incorporating their troops and sucking huge funds out of the state. France, with some Austrian support, tried to push for peace. It also defeated the French plan to invade Britain.

On 30 SeptemberBritain pledged financial aid to Russia in order to station 50, troops on the Livonian-Lithuanian border, so they could defend Britain's interests in Hanover immediately.

Austria had lost Silesia to Prussia, and was angry at both Prussia — for taking the wealthy land — and her own allies for not making sure it was returned.

Seven years war summary

On July 13, , Braddock died after being mortally wounded in an ambush on a failed expedition to capture Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh. Prussia, pleased at having gained Silesia, believed it would take another war to keep it, and hoped to gain more territory during it. The next month Britain declared war. The first minister of the French government, the duc de Choiseul, was determined to regain the valuable sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and to retain a base for the Grand Banks fisheries. However, his adversaries in the Cabinet outmaneuvered him by making the plans public, thus alerting the French Government and escalating a distant frontier skirmish into a full-scale war. Prussia was intent on forcing a return to the state of affairs before the war, but as peace negotiations dragged on Frederick sucked as much as he could out of Saxony, including kidnapping girls and relocating them in depopulated areas of Prussia. Besthuzev, assuming the preparation was directed against Prussia, was more than happy to obey the request of the British. Frederick saw Saxony and Polish west Prussia as potential fields for expansion but could not expect French support if he started an aggressive war for them. Saxony was merely a buffer between Prussia and Austrian Bohemia , whereas Poland, despite its union with the ancient lands of Lithuania , was prey to pro-French and pro-Russian factions. Thanks for watching! Edited by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker.

Edited by Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker.

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Seven Years’ War